Home Business Europe’s second wave raises risk of double-dip recession

Europe’s second wave raises risk of double-dip recession


Europe’s economic system is sliding in the direction of a double-dip recession, with economists warning that rising coronavirus infections and recent authorities restrictions on individuals’s motion are prone to reduce quick the area’s latest restoration.

Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands have all introduced measures in the past week to comprise the second wave of Covid-19 infections. On Saturday, an evening time curfew was launched for Paris and a variety of different French cities, whereas the Italian authorities is anticipated to announce new curbs on Sunday.

A variety of European nations reported file new day by day an infection figures over the weekend.

“I can’t imagine how briskly the second wave has hit,” mentioned Katharina Utermöhl, senior economist at Allianz. “We now see progress turning unfavorable in a number of nations within the fourth quarter — one other recession is completely attainable.”

Column chart of Eurozone GDP, % change on previous quarter showing Eurozone growth is set to slow after a bounce back in Q3

Whereas third-quarter figures are anticipated to indicate file progress in eurozone gross home product when they’re printed on the finish of this month, a rising variety of economists are already reducing their fourth-quarter forecasts into unfavorable territory.

“The form of the virus resurgence and ensuing enterprise lockdowns and confidence shocks make a double-dip recession the central state of affairs,” mentioned Lena Komileva, chief economist at G+ Economics, including that Brexit disruption would “additional amplify” the financial downturn.

These predictions that the eurozone economic system will slide again into recession — albeit a a lot shallower one than earlier this yr — are unhealthy information for the European Central Financial institution, which solely final month forecast fourth-quarter progress of over 3 per cent. One other setback would imperil the ECB’s perception that the eurozone economic system will return to its pre-pandemic measurement by 2022.

‘We’ll see you one other time’ — the Dutch authorities this week ordered bars and eating places to shut at 10pm © Sem van der Wal/EPA-EFE/Shutterstock
A abandoned classroom in a closed faculty in Prague — the Czech Republic has been one of many nations hardest hit by the second wave of infections © Petr David Josek/AP

Klaas Knot, the Dutch central financial institution governor and ECB governing council member, mentioned final week: “Many nations at the moment are experiencing a second wave of infections . . . this implies restoration now appears additional away than we had hoped for. And the financial impression is deepening.”

Most analysts count on the ECB to react to a flagging economic system that lately slid into deflation by including an additional €500bn to its emergency bond-buying programme in December. 

In an extra signal that extra financial easing is probably going, Robert Holzmann, the usually conservative head of the Austrian central financial institution and ECB council member, mentioned: “Extra sturdy, in depth or strict containment measures will possible require extra financial and financial lodging within the quick run.”

The EU’s deliberate €750bn recovery fund remains to be being debated and so is unlikely to begin distributing cash for nearly a yr. Within the meantime, nationwide governments “must bridge the hole”, mentioned Nadia Gharbi, economist at Pictet Wealth Administration.

Line chart of Eurozone services purchasing managers' index (below 50 = contraction in activity) showing September's PMI report showed signs of a 'double dip' in the economy

Political leaders nonetheless hope to keep away from the sort of strict lockdowns that brought about a file postwar recession within the second quarter. “Politicians have learnt their classes from the primary wave,” mentioned Jörg Krämer, chief economist at German lender Commerzbank. “A second undifferentiated lockdown is to not be anticipated due to the immense financial prices.”

But with daily infection levels in many countries rising above the earlier peak of the pandemic in March and April and hospital beds filling up once more, governments might have little selection however to tighten restrictions even additional.

Even with out full-scale lockdowns, economists say the mere undeniable fact that the coronavirus an infection fee is capturing up is prone to hit shopper exercise, prompting extra individuals to remain dwelling and spend much less cash — simply as they did when the pandemic first hit. 

“If individuals get scared and keep at dwelling, then precautionary financial savings will go up once more and that would push us into one other unfavorable quarter of GDP,” mentioned Erik Nielsen, chief economist at UniCredit. “With some of these shocks it hardly takes something to push us into unfavorable territory.”

A latest FT analysis of Google neighborhood cellular knowledge discovered that after rising for months, footfall in cafés, eating places, retail and leisure venues began in early October to say no once more in many European cities, together with Paris, London, Amsterdam, Berlin and Madrid.

Central bankers are watching this high-frequency knowledge intently for indicators of how the second wave of infections is affecting the economic system. “Demand results are dominating in the intervening time, and labour-intensive service sectors are being very badly affected,” mentioned an ECB governing council member. “A double-dip is feasible.”

That spells hassle for nations like France, Spain and Portugal, which have giant service sectors requiring a excessive degree of social interplay — reminiscent of tourism and leisure. Allianz final week slashed its Spanish and French financial forecasts, predicting that as an alternative of progress they’d contract by 1.3 per cent and 1.1 per cent within the fourth quarter, respectively. 

Some weak spot was already evident in final month’s IHS Markit survey of buying managers, which discovered for the primary time since Could {that a} majority of eurozone providers companies have been reporting a sharp drop in exercise from the earlier month. 

On a brighter observe, the identical survey discovered exercise had improved within the manufacturing sector — boosted by a rebound in international commerce, significantly in exports to China. In one other upbeat signal, German manufacturing facility orders outstripped expectations by rising 4.5 per cent in August. 

Carsten Brzeski, chief eurozone economist at ING, mentioned some German manufacturing firms have been privately boasting they anticipated to have “one of the best quarter for a while” within the closing three months of this yr. “This might simply be sufficient to keep away from a double-dip,” he mentioned.